Original dixie cups

Original dixie cups DEFAULT

The Dixie Cups

For other uses, see Dixie cups (disambiguation).

The Dixie Cups are an American pop music girl group of the 1960s. They are best known for a string of hits including their 1964 million-selling record "Chapel of Love", "People Say", and "Iko Iko".


The group hit the top of the charts in 1964 with "Chapel of Love," a song that Phil Spector, Jeff Barry, and Ellie Greenwich had originally written for The Ronettes.[1] The trio consisted of sisters Barbara Ann and Rosa Lee Hawkins; plus their cousin Joan Marie Johnson, from New Orleans.[2] They first sang together in grade school. Originally, they were to be called Little Miss and the Muffets, but were named the Dixie Cups just prior to their first release.[3]

In 1963, the trio decided to pursue a professional career in music and began singing locally as the Meltones.[4] Within a year Joe Jones, a successful singer in his own right with the Top Five 1960 single "You Talk Too Much," became their manager.[5] After working with them for five months, Jones took them to New York City, where record producers/songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller signed them to their new Red Bird Records.[1]

The Dixie Cups debut single was the release, "Chapel of Love," which became their biggest hit reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart in June 1964. "Chapel of Love" sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc.[6] In 1987, the song "Chapel of Love" appeared on the Full Metal Jacket soundtrack and in the 1991 film, Father of the Bride.[7] The hit single by The Dixie Cups was ranked No. 279 on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.[5] The group also had several other hits including, "People Say" (#12, 1964), "You Should Have Seen the Way He Looked at Me" (#39, 1964), "Little Bell" (#51, 1965), and "Iko Iko" (#20, 1965).[8]

"Iko Iko", a New Orleans traditional song, was recorded in 1964 but later was released as a single early in 1965.[2] Barbara Hawkins had heard her grandmother sing the song, first recorded in 1953 as "Jock-a-Mo" by James "Sugar Boy" Crawford. Barbara Hawkins: "We were just clowning around with it during a session using drumsticks on ashtrays. We didn't realize that Jerry and Mike had the tapes running". Leiber and Stoller overdubbed a bassline and percussion, and released it. It was The Dixie Cups' fifth and last hit.[9]

In 1965, the Dixie Cups moved to the ABC-Paramount record label before a recording hiatus in 1966 temporarily halted their careers.[4] In 1974 the Hawkins sisters moved from New York to New Orleans, where they both began successful modelling careers.[4] Barbara Ann and Rosa Lee also worked as make-up artists. Joan Johnson retired from the group, unable to manage the stress from traveling. The Dixie Cups continued to tour as a trio with another New Orleans singer, Beverly Brown, replacing Joan Johnson who became a Jehovah's Witness and left her music career.[3] Brown who had recorded two solo discs in the early 1960s stayed as the third member until the early 80s when she became ill and was replaced by Dale Mickle. The Dixie Cups continue to perform and make personal appearances. The current line-up consists of the Hawkins sisters along with Athelgra Neville, sister of the singing Neville Brothers.

On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina swept through Louisiana, flooding much of New Orleans and displacing Barbara and Rosa Hawkins, who subsequently relocated to Florida. Joan Johnson relocated to Texas. Two years later in April 2007, The Louisiana Music Hall Of Fame honored The Dixie Cups for their contributions to Louisiana music by inducting them into The Louisiana Music Hall of Fame.

Joan Marie Johnson died in New Orleans of congestive heart failure on October 3, 2016 at the age of 72.[10]



  • "Chapel of Love" b/w "Ain't That Nice" (1964) Red Bird Records / U.S. Chart (Billboard) No. 1[11] UK #22[12] Canada RPM No. 1
  • "People Say" b/w "Girls Can Tell" (1964) Red Bird Records/ U.S. Chart (Billboard) No. 12[11] R&B No. 7[5] Canada RPM No. 7
  • "You Should Have Seen The Way He Looked at Me" b/w "No True Love" (1964) Red Bird Records/ U.S. Chart (Billboard) No. 39[11] Canada RPM No. 20
  • "Little Bell" b/w "Another Boy Like Mine" (1964) Red Bird Records/ U.S. Chart (Billboard) No. 51[11] R&B No. 21[5]
  • "Iko Iko" b/w "I'm Gonna Get You Yet" (1965) Red Bird Records/ U.S. Chart (Billboard) No. 20[11] R&B No. 20[5] UK # 23[12] Canada RPM No. 26
  • "Iko Iko" b/w "Gee Baby Gee" (1965) Red Bird Records/ U.S. Chart (Billboard) No. 20
  • "Gee The Moon Is Shining Bright" b/w "I'm Gonna Get You Yet" (1965) Red Bird Records/ U.S. Billboard No. 102[11]
  • "Two-Way-Poc-A-Way" b/w "That's Where It's At" (1965) ABC-Paramount Records /Written by Harold Fedison
  • "What Goes Up Must Come Down" b/w "I'm Not The Kind Of Girl (To Marry)" (1965) ABC-Paramount Records
  • "A-B-C Song" b/w "That's What The Kids Said" (1965) ABC-Paramount Records
  • "Love Ain't So Bad (After All)" b/w "Daddy Said No" (1966) ABC Records


  • Chapel of Love (1964) Red Bird Records/ Billboard 200 No. 112[13]
  • Iko Iko (1965) Red Bird Records (re-packaged album that is the same as their debut with a different album cover under the title Iko Iko)[2]
  • Riding High (1965) ABC-Paramount Records
  • Doing It Our Way (2011) Iri Records


  • Teen Anguish Volume One (1979) Charly Records
  • The Best of the Dixie Cups (1985) Back-Trac Records
  • The Dixie Cups Meet The Shangri-Las (1986) Charly Records
  • The Very Best of the Dixie Cups: Chapel Of Love (1998) Collectables Records
  • The Complete Red Bird Recordings (2002) Varèse Sarabande Records

Original group members[edit]

  • Barbara Ann Hawkins (born October 23, 1943)[14]
  • Joan Marie Johnson (January 15, 1944 – October 2, 2016)[7]
  • Rosa Lee Hawkins (born September 24, 1944)


  1. ^ abBronson, Fred (2003). The Billboard Book of Number One Hits: The Inside Story Behind Every Number One Single on Billboard's Hot 100 from 1955 to the Present (5 ed.). Billboard Books. p. 149. ISBN 0-8230-7677-6.
  2. ^ abcBetrock, Alan (1982). Girl Groups The Story of a Sound (1st ed.). New York: Delilah Books. pgs. 90–94. ISBN 0-933328-25-7
  3. ^ abDillon, Charlotte. The Dixie Cups at AllMusic. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  4. ^ abcRomanowski, Patricia (1995).The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll: Completely Revised and Updated (2nd edition). New York: Fireside Books. pp.271. ISBN 0-684-81044-1
  5. ^ abcdeWhitburn, Joel (2008). Presents Across The Charts: The 1960s (first ed.). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p.119.
  6. ^Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. pp. 173–174. ISBN .
  7. ^ abNiraj Chokshi (October 8, 2016). "Joan Marie Johnson, of the Singing Trio the Dixie Cups, Dies at 72". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  8. ^The Dixie Cups // Billboard Singles at AllMusic. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  9. ^Hutchinson, Lydia. "The Story Behind Mardi Gras Mambo and Iko Iko". PerformingSongwriter.com. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  10. ^Blisten, John (2016) "Joan Marie Johnson, 'Chapel of Love' Singer, Dead at 72", Rolling Stone, October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016
  11. ^ abcdefWhitburn, Joel (2009). Top Pop Singles 1955–2008 (12th ed.). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 282.
  12. ^ abRoberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 158. ISBN .
  13. ^Whitburn, Joel (1996). Top Pop Albums 1955–1996 (4 ed.). Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation. p. 222. ISBN 0-89820-117-9.
  14. ^Barbara Anne Hawkins at AllMusic. Retrieved 28 September 2011.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Dixie_Cups
Dixie-cup-shaped water tower on top of the plant in Easton, Pennsylvania in the 1920s.

The history of the Dixie Cup began when Lawrence Luellen first became interested in an individual drinking cup in 1907, through a lawyer named Austin M. Pinkham, with whom he shared the same business suite on State Street in Boston. Pinkham had investors who were interested in forming a company to manufacture a flat-folded paper drinking cup which would be delivered by a vending machine and connected to a water cooler. The object was to dispense a pure drink of water in a new, clean, and individual drinking cup. While Luellen saw the potential of such a machine, he concluded that in order for the machine to be successful, it would have to dispense a cup in open form rather than one which would have to be unfolded each time. Luellen conceived of a one-piece pleated cup, made of a circular blank of paper – treated with paraffin to hold the folds in place.

In early 1908, Luellen also began work on a two-piece cup made out of a blank of paper rolled into “frusto-conical” form with a separate bottom piece. He began consultations with patent attorney, Sylvanus Cobb about the patentability of his invention. Luellen also enlisted the assistance of Eugene H. Taylor, an engineer and inventor, of the Taylor Machine Works at Hyde Park, who was successful in devising a machine to manufacture such cups.

In addition to perfecting the cups themselves, Luellen also completed work on a dispensing apparatus in the early part of 1908. Luellen developed a vending machine that for a price of a penny would dispense a cool drink of water in an individual cup. This “Luellen Cup & Water Vendor” was a tall, white porcelain device divided into four parts: a glass jug of water on top of an ice container, a middle section for waste water, and a bottom receptacle for discarded cups. The cup dispenser was attached to the front of the vendor. He came upon the idea of nesting the cups together in a column, or compact form for better handling. Luellen conceived of a flange on the cup so that it might be separated from the adjacent cup.

With these various inventions and a group of investors Luellen incorporated his new company as the American Water Supply Company of New England on April 4, 1908 in the state of Massachusetts. Although Luellen continued to work independently on developing the one-piece, pleated cup, the directors of the company decided that the capital investment for the machine was too high. Instead the company voted to manufacture only the two-piece, smooth-sided cup because of the much lower manufacturing cost.

In the fall of the same year the company also began manufacturing the cup dispenser alone, which sold cups for a penny and were to be installed next to drinking fountains. The first “penny vendors” were made out of brass tubing with a horizontal cylindrical casing made out of heavy cast iron which held the cups. Herman Doehler of the Doehler Die Casting Company of New York was able to make a casing out of a lighter steel which replaced the earlier model.

It was Luellen’s original plan for the cup business to organize a number of local companies having territorial rights under his invention, and the American Water Supply Company of New England was to be the first of these companies with rights to New England only. In an effort to broaden distribution of their products Luellen also organized the American Water Supply Company of New York with Hugh Moore as secretary and treasurer, and the American Water Supply Company of New Jersey in 1908 or 1909 with Moore as the director. Neither of these companies manufactured cups, but sold cups and also the vending apparatus manufactured by the American Water Supply Company of N.E. under license from Luellen’s patent. On February 3, 1909 Moore and Luellen formed the Public Cup Vendor Company incorporated in New York, principally to lease their machines to railroads and railroad stations, and the cups were sold to their customers in bulk. Moore was named treasurer and general manager of the Public Cup Vendor Company. In this company as well as the others Luellen received stock and a salary.

The paper cup business received a boost when the campaign to abolish the public drinking vessel gained several important endorsements. Lafayette biology professor Alvin Davison’s influential study on the contamination present in school drinking cups was published as “Death in School Drinking Cups” in Technical World Magazine in August 1908, and redistributed by the Massachusetts State Board of Health in November 1909. Davison’s experiments were carried out in Easton, Pennsylvania’s public schools.

Illustration from The Cup-Campaigner, August, 1910

In a further development in 1909, Kansas passed the first state law to abolish the common drinking cup-the “tin dipper” in public places and the common glasses beside coolers in railroads. The campaign was led by Dr. Samuel J. Crumbine of the Kansas State Board of Health. The publicity given Dr. Crumbine’s campaign and Professor Davison’s survey eventually resulted in state after state passing laws that forbade the use of a common drinking vessel in public places. Railroads were among the first to recognize the benefits to the public of abolishing the common drinking cup, and they provided the American Water Supply Company with the first steady market for its penny vendor. As the use of a common drinking cup was forbidden in places like schools, offices and other public places, the company began to market an apparatus which would dispense the cups for free. In his own campaign against the “tin dipper,” Hugh Moore spoke at the Pure Food Show in Madison Square Garden on the dangers of the common drinking cup on September 23, 1910 and in 1909-1910 published a pamphlet called The Cup Campaigner.

Despite initial success with the territorial companies, Luellen and Moore decided to consolidate the operation into one organization. After an unsuccessful attempt to get new investors, the two men took up quarters at the Waldorf- Astoria Hotel using hotel stationary to impress potential investors. They opened a small account with the Title Guarantee & Trust Company, and operated out of an office in the Wall Street financial district, at 115 Broadway, adjacent to Trinity church. Through a suggestion from Arthur Terry, the treasurer of the bank, they approached Edgar L. Marston, the director of the Trust company. According to Marston, Moore put on quite a show with the vision of instant death on the rim of the common drinking cup. Marston, Terry, and several of their friends, including William T. Graham, president of American Can Company, offered a $200,000 capital investment which allowed the company to establish itself.

On December 15, 1910 the Individual Drinking Cup Company of New York was incorporated in Maine (The company was reorganized and incorporated in New York in 1917, and in the transaction acquired its predecessor). This time Luellen assigned his patents to the new company allowing it to manufacture cups. In turn, he received substantial stock in the company and cash. Moore was secretary, treasurer, general manager and finally president of the new company. The first manufacturing plant was at 118 East 16th Street-a loft space. In 1911, the company headquarters was moved to 220 West 19th Street. The plant originally occupied only one floor (6000 square feet), but eventually expanded to six before the move from New York. The early Dixie team included engineer and production manager Edwin Wessman, Harry Stone, Samuel Graham, Herman Carew, accountant Arthur Lillicrapp, and Cecil Dawson who joined the company to direct Sales.

By 1912 the Individual Drinking Cup Company’s product was called the Health Kup and the company had developed its first semi-automatic machine to produce them. In 1913, a related venture, the Individual Service Company was established to vend towels, soap, deodorizers, and sanitary napkins.

By 1916, more than 100 railroads throughout the country, including the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Lackawanna, The Chicago, Illinois Central, some New York Central lines, as well as the Pullman Company had entered into contracts to sell the Individual Drinking Cup Company’s products. The company soon expanded its market to drug stores and soda fountains. The flu epidemic after World War I put paper cups in even higher demand. Faced with the growing number of companies entering the cup-making business each year, Hugh Moore changed the name of his product in an effort to set it apart from the competition. In 1919 the Health Kup became the Dixie Cup, named for a line of dolls made by Alfred Schindler’s Dixie Doll Company in New York.

The growth of his company made it necessary for Hugh Moore to consider a new location. After approximately ten years in New York City, Moore began to inspect sites in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland, before he took a serious interest in a site located in Easton, Pennsylvania. Peter Burnett, Industrial Agent of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and Thomas Hay, a Lafayette College graduate, and the Secretary of the Board of Trade in Easton first showed Moore thirteen acres on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, on the corner of Washington and Northampton Street, but Moore’s engineers decided that the grade was too steep for railroad access. Moore became interested in a nearby property on the Easton-Bethlehem trolley line-part of a 400 acre farm owned by an Andrew Edelman, who at first refused to sell. It was located at the Southeast corner of Northampton Street at the Eastern & Northern railroad crossing in Wilson Township. Finally Moore bought 7 acres at $3000 an acre. With the support of Hay, Will Haytock, president of the Board of Trade, banker Chester Snyder, Judge James Fox, E.J. Richards, and James V. Bull, and backing from the Guaranty Fund of the Easton Board of Trade, Moore decided to build the new plant in Easton. This new venture was financed with a loan of $280.000 for eleven years from the First National Bank of Easton at 5% interest. White Construction Co. a New York firm was awarded the building contract for a plant of approximately 80,000 square feet of floor space. The plant was completed and opened in 1921 with 78 employees; 28 of whom came to Easton from New York, and the remaining 50 were hired locally the first year. Lawrence Luellen did not move with the company headquarters to Easton, but stayed behind to consult with the branch office in New York.

Dixie’s first great success story after moving to Easton began in 1923, with an idea of merchandising an individual serving of ice cream in a Dixie cup. The company’s first contracts were with Weed’s Ice Cream Company of Allentown and Carry Ice Cream Company of Washington, D.C. to sell a 5oz. cup for ten cents. Although the first experiments were a disaster, the company soon developed a smaller, more rigid 2 1/2 oz.cup that would not absorb moisture, or crumble in the filling process, that would sell for five cents. To develop an adequate filling machine, Mojonnier Brothers, authorities on the engineering of filling devices, created an automatic machine to fill a paper cup with two flavors of ice cream at one time. Ice Cream Dixies earned almost instantaneous consumer acceptance.

The Individual Drinking Cup Company established a plan of franchise which permitted only ice cream manufacturers packing high quality ice cream to use the brand name on the Diamond Design Dixie cup. A Dixie trademarked lid carried the individual ice cream manufacturers identification.

An accompanying “Dixie Circus,” a highly successful radio show that aired every Friday night on NBC and later reappeared on CBS radio helped to make the Ice Cream Dixie a household name. In addition to radio, Dixies were also advertised in trade magazines, newspapers, and national consumer magazines like the Saturday Evening Post, Liberty, and Good Housekeeping.

Beginning in 1930, the Individual Drinking Cup Company also introduced a highly successful program by which children collected Dixie lids to receive “Premiums,” beginning with illustrations of their favored Dixie Circus characters, and then Hollywood stars, sports personalities, and in support of the war effort in the 1940s, scenes depicting United States and United Nations forces in action.

Spurred on by the success of the Ice Cream Dixie franchise program, a new line of Pac-Kup containers, and an expanding soda fountain market allowed for continued growth during the Depression years. The Individual Drinking Cup Co. merged with the Vortex Cup Company of Chicago in 1936, bringing that company’s headquarters building in Chicago and its cone-shaped cups, originated by David Curtin in 1912, sundae dishes and a dry-waxing process into Dixie domain. The new company was called the Dixie-Vortex Company, until 1943, when it became the Dixie Cup Company. The success of Dixie products during World War II gave the paper cup business even greater prominence. Dixie Cups and a newly developed portable watertank-cup dispenser were delivered on a priority basis to the Armed Forces, the Red Cross, and war industries.

Along with many other industries, Dixie witnessed considerable growth after the war. Dixie collaborated with Coca Cola in 1946 to market a liquid vendor, introduced the enormously successful “Home Line” in 1949, and not deterred by unsuccessful attempts in the 1930s and 1940s, came out with a popular Brew Master Beer Dixie in 1950. In addition to numerous expansions to its existing plants in Easton, Chicago, and Darlington, the company acquired the C.H. Cowdrey Machine Works (1946) in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, which had manufactured Dixie machines since 1919. The company also expanded to Fort Smith, Arkansas (1947), Brampton, Ontario (1949), Anaheim, California (1952), and Lexington, Kentucky (1958). In addition, the Kleen Products Division of the Modena Paper Mills, located in North Wales, Pennsylvania, became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Dixie Cup Company on April 28, 1957.

After considering numerous companies during the 1950s, including General Foods Corporation and the Scott Paper Company, Dixie approved a merger with American Can Company in 1957. Although Moore stepped down as an officer of the company, he continued to serve American Can Company as a consultant to its Dixie Cup Division. Clarence L. Van Schaick continued as vice-president and general manager of the Dixie Cup Division with its main office in Easton, Pennsylvania. Under the direction of American Can Co. the Dixie Division continued its growth and development of new products, including “Mira-Glaze” cups and dishes in 1959. In 1982, American Can was acquired by the James River Corporation of Virginia. The James River Corporation changed its name to the Fort James Corporation in 1997. Dixie Cup is currently a product division of Georgia-Pacific, a subsidiary of Koch Industries.

Sours: https://sites.lafayette.edu/dixiecollection/company-history/
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The Dixie Cups are an American all-girl R&B pop vocal outfit from New Orleans, LA. The original band members were Barbara Ann Hawkins, her sister Rosa Lee Hawkins and their cousin, Joan Marie Johnson. The trio started out singing together in grade school. They initially planned on calling themselves "Little Miss and the Muffets" and began performing locally as The Meltones in 1963. The threesome was discovered at a talent show by singer/producer Joe Jones, who became their manager and introduced them to the legendary producer/songwriter team of Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller at New York City's Brill Building. Jones got the group a contract with Leiber and Stoller's Red Bird Records. They were renamed The Dixie Cups just prior to recording their first single, "Chapel of Love", which proved to be a huge smash in 1964; the extremely catchy and charming tune was a #1 hit for three weeks in a row on the Billboard radio pop charts and went on to sell a million copies.

The group had follow-up hits in the mid-'60s with "People Say" (#12), "You Should Have Seen the Way He Looked At Me" (#39), a delightfully sprightly rendition of the classic New Orleans R&B standard "Iko Iko" (#20) and "Little Bell" (#51). The group switched to the ABC-Paramount label in 1966 and took a temporary hiatus from the music industry that same year. They got back together a few years later with the Hawkins sisters and Dale McMickle replacing Joan Marie Johnson. Mickle eventually left and was replaced by Althelgra Neville. The group won the Pioneer Award from the Rhythm & Blues Foundation in 2003 and was inducted into the Louisiana Music Hall of Fame in 2007. The Dixie Cups still continue to tour and perform in concert on a regular basis.

- IMDb Mini Biography By: woodyanders (qv's & corrections by A. Nonymous)

Trivia (2)

Inducted into the Louisiana Music Hall of Fame in 2007.
Sours: https://www.imdb.com/name/nm1827481/bio
Original Star Wars Dixie Cups 1980

The Unnatural History of the Dixie Cup


The Dixie Cup, the Kleenex of paper cups, the ubiquitous, single-serving, individual drinking vessel, was never meant to be shared. The paper cups were not built to last. Drink. Toss. Repeat.

Their story starts with a Boston inventor named Lawrence Luellen, who crafted a two-piece cup made out of a blank of paper. He joined the American Water Supply Company, the brainchild of a Kansas-born Harvard dropout named Hugh Moore. The two began dispensing individual servings of water for a penny—one cent for a five-ounce cup from a tall, clumsy porcelain water cooler.

Soon they were the Individual Drinking Cup Company of New York and had renamed their sole product the Health Kup, a life-saving drinking technology that could help prevent the transmission of communicable disease and aid the campaign to do away with free water offered at communal cups, “tin dippers,” found in public buildings and railway stations. Make no mistake, because of this scourge, one biologist reported in a 1908 article, there was “Death in School Drinking Cups.”

Yet it wasn’t health that ultimately paved the way for the disposable paper cup’s ubiquity and commercial immortality. One day, Moore stopped in at the Dixie Doll Company and asked the dollmaker if he could borrow their name for his cup, because, apparently, the vessels were now as reliable as old ten-dollar bills (dixies, from the French dix) issued by Louisiana prior to the Civil War, according to Anne Cooper Funderburg’s account in Sundae Best. The cup’s reputation was further cemented when soda fountains introduced an automatic machine to that could fill a cup with two flavors of ice cream at the same time, ushering in paper-wrapped wooden scoops and disposable cups known as Ice Cream Dixies.

Dixie cups offer something at once refreshing and profoundly sobering, a pioneering product that ushered in the wave of single-use items—razors, aerosolized cans, pens, bottles of water and the paper cups you can find at doctor’s offices, backyard barbecues and, of course, the office water cooler.

Drawing: Lawrence W. Luellen, 1912. Drinking Cup. Us Patent 1032557.

Sours: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-unnatural-history-of-the-dixie-cup-119828457/

Cups original dixie

Formed in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, in 1963, the Dixie Cups were a female trio best known for the original recording of the hit ‘Chapel Of Love’ in the early 60s. The group comprised sisters Barbara Ann Hawkins (23 October 1943) and Rosa Lee Hawkins (b. 24 September 1944) and their cousin Joan Marie Johnson (b. January 1945, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA). Having sung together in church and at school, the girls formed a group called the Meltones for a high school talent contest in 1963. There they were discovered by Joe Jones, a New Orleans singer who had secured a hit himself with ‘You Talk Too Much’ in 1960. He became their manager and signed the trio with producers/songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, who were then starting their own record label, Red Bird, with industry veteran George Goldner.

The Dixie Cups recorded Jeff Barry and Ellie Greenwich’s ‘Chapel Of Love’ despite the fact that both the Ronettes and the Crystals had failed to have hits with the song, which was described by co-producer Mike Leiber as ‘a record I hated with a passion’. Released as the debut Red Bird single, the trio’s first single reached number 1 in the USA during the summer of 1964 (the trio later claimed that they received only a few hundred dollars for their part in the recording). Following that hit, the Dixie Cups toured the USA and released a number of follow-up singles for Red Bird, four of which charted. ‘People Say’, the second, made number 12 and the last, ‘Iko Iko’, a traditional New Orleans chant, reached number 20. The song was subsequently used in soundtracks for a number of films, in common with ‘Chapel Of Love’. After Red Bird closed down in 1966, the Dixie Cups signed with ABC-Paramount Records. No hits resulted from the association, and the trio have not recorded since, although they continue to perform (the two sisters are the only originals still in the act).

Source: The Encyclopedia of Popular Music by Colin Larkin. Licensed from Muze.

Sours: https://www.oldies.com/artist-biography/The-Dixie-Cups.html
Original Star Wars Dixie Cups 1980

Paper cup

Cup mostly made of paper or card

Insulated paper cup for hot drinks, cut away to show air layer

A paper cup is a disposable cup made out of paper and often lined or coated with plastic or wax to prevent liquid from leaking out or soaking through the paper.[1][2][3] It may be made of recycled paper[4] and is widely used around the world.


Paper cups have been documented in imperial China, where paper was invented by 2nd century BC.[5] Paper cups were known as chih pei and were used for the serving of tea.[6] They were constructed in different sizes and colors, and were adorned with decorative designs. Textual evidence of paper cups appears in a description of the possessions of the Yu family, from the city of Hangzhou.[6]

The modern paper cup was developed in the 20th century. In the early 20th century, it was common to have shared glasses or dippers at water sources such as school faucets or water barrels in trains. This shared use caused public health concerns. One notable investigation into their use was the study by Alvin Davison, biology professor at Lafayette College, published with the sensational title "Death in School Drinking Cups" in Technical World Magazine in August 1908, based on research carried out in Easton, Pennsylvania's public schools. The article was reprinted and distributed by the Massachusetts State Board of Health in November 1909.[7]

Based on these concerns, and as paper goods (especially after the 1908 invention of the Dixie Cup) became cheaply and cleanly available, local bans were passed on the shared-use cup. One of the first railway companies to use disposable paper cups was the Lackawanna Railroad, which began using them in 1909. By 1917, the public glass had disappeared from railway carriages, replaced by paper cups even in jurisdictions where public glasses had yet to be banned.[8]

Paper cups are also employed in hospitals for health reasons. In 1942 the Massachusetts State College found in one study that the cost of using washable glasses, re-used after being sanitized, was 1.6 times the cost of using single-service paper cups.[9] These studies, as well as the reduction in the risk of cross-infection, encouraged the use of paper cups in hospitals.

Dixie cups[edit]

"Dixie cup" redirects here. For the type of naval headgear, see Sailor cap. For the musical band, see The Dixie Cups.

Dixie Cup is the brand name for a line of disposable paper cups that were first developed in the United States in 1907 by Lawrence Luellen, a lawyer in Boston, Massachusetts, who was concerned about germs being spread by people sharing glasses or dippers at public supplies of drinking water. Luellen developed an ice-cooled water-vending machine with disposable cups,[7] and with another Bostonian, Hugh Moore, embarked on an advertising campaign to educate the public and to market his machine, principally to railroad companies. Professor Davison's study was instrumental in abolishing the public glass and opening the door for the paper cup. Soon, the devices, which would dispense cool water for one cent, became standard equipment on trains.

After Lawrence Luellen invented his paper cup and corresponding water fountain, he started the American Water Supply Company of New England in 1908 located in Boston. The company began producing the cup as well as the Water Vendor. In order to expand their territory, Luellen organized the American Water Supply Company of New York as well as the American Water Supply Company of New Jersey with the help of Hugh Moore. Instead of producing the cups and fountains, these subsidiary companies were charged with the sale and distribution of Luellen's products. In 1909 Luellen and Moore started the Public Cup Vendor Company in New York in order to lease their vendor machines. Their primary customers were railroads so that the devices could be implemented on passenger train cars. After many states started to ban the common drinking cup in public places, steady orders for Luellen's machine began to roll in. The success of Luellen and Moore's territorial companies inspired them to incorporate into the Individual Drinking Cup Company of New York in 1910.

Dixie Cup Company, Easton, Pennsylvania

The Dixie Cup was first called "Health Kup", but from 1919 it was named after a line of dolls made by Alfred Schindler's Dixie Doll Company in New York. Success led the company, which had existed under a variety of names, to call itself the Dixie Cup Corporation and move to a factory in Wilson, Pennsylvania. Atop the factory was a large water tank in the shape of a cup.[10]

In 1957, Dixie merged with the American Can Company. The James River Corporation purchased American Can's paper business in 1982. The assets of James River are now part of Georgia-Pacific, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, the second largest privately owned company in the United States. In 1983, production moved to a modern factory in Forks, Pennsylvania. The original factory in Wilson has sat vacant ever since. The closing of the factory also prompted Conrail to abandon the Easton & Northern railroad branch, of which Dixie Cups was the last major customer.

In 1969, the Dixie Cup logo was created by Saul Bass, a graphic designer known for his motion picture title sequences.

The coupon collector's problem is sometimes called the Dixie cup problem.

Early advertisements[edit]

Early advertisement for Dixie Cups when they were still known as Health Kups[7]
"This is the Sanitary Age" advertisement for Dixie Cups[7]

The tone of many of the advertisements created by the Dixie Cup Company took the form of embracing modern ideals and marketing towards people who wanted to improve their lives and jump on board a new trend for fear of being left behind. “This is the sanitary age -- the age of dixie cups,”[11] was used for several years with success.

A subsequent pivot towards soda fountains was made in both product line and advertising, but the central idea of individual use as more sanitary than reusable glasses persisted. An emphasis on the theme of cups being “touched only by you” was seen as an act to make the cups seem individualized.

Another early advertisement from Dixie


The world's largest "paper" cup in front of what was once the Lily-Tulip manufacturing company, later Sweetheart Cup Company.[12]Made of poured concrete, the cup stands about 68.1 feet (20.8 m) tall.

The base paper for paper cups is called "cup board", and is made on special multi-ply paper machines. It has a barrier coating for waterproofing. The paper needs high stiffness and strong wet sizing. The cup board grade has a special design for the cup manufacturing processes. The mouth roll forming process requires good elongation properties of the board and the plastic coating. A well formed mouth roll provides stiffness and handling properties in the cup. The basis weights of the cup boards are 170–350 g/m2.[13]

To meet hygiene requirements, paper cups are generally manufactured from virgin (non-recycled) materials.[citation needed] The one exception to this is when the paper cup features an extra insulating layer for heat retention, which never comes into contact with the beverage, such as a corrugated layer wrapped around a single-wall cup.


Originally, paper cups for hot drinks were glued together and made waterproof by dropping a small amount of clay in the bottom of the cup, and then spinning at high speed so that clay would travel up the walls of the cup, making the paper water-resistant.[citation needed] However, this resulted in drinks smelling and tasting of cardboard.

Cups for cold drinks could not be treated in the same way, as condensation forms on the outside, then soaks into the board, making the cup unstable. To remedy this, cup manufacturers developed the technique of spraying both the inside and outside of the cup with wax. Clay- and wax-coated cups disappeared with the invention of polyethylene (PE)-coated cups; this process covers the surface of the board with a very thin layer of PE, waterproofing the board and welding the seams together.

In 2017, the Finnish board manufacturer Kotkamills launched a new kind of cup (food service) board which uses no wax or plastic for waterproofing, and thus can be recycled as part of the normal paper and board waste stream, biodegraded, or even composted in small quantities.[14]

In 2017, the Newport Beach, California, company Smart Planet Technologies, launched "reCUP" for the UK market, a recyclable paper cup using a polyethylene and mineral-blended coating branded EarthCoating, that is engineered to be recycled through traditional paper recycling systems. Paper cups with EarthCoating are sold by Detpak, Huhtamaki, Linstol and Pureco USA.

Paper cups and paper bags made from "Pinyapel", paper made from discarded pineapple leaves, were introduced in 2019. The water-resistant food packaging alternative material was developed by a consortium made up of the Department of Trade and Industry Design Center of the Philippines (DCP), Cagayan de Oro Handmade Paper, Nature’s Fresh, and Ideatechs Packaging Corporation. The innovation was a Wood Pencil Awardee in the 2019 edition of the annual D&AD Future Impact Awards.[15] Tests by the DCP show that the 55.32 percent mass loss of Pinyapel in four weeks is much higher than the 21.33 percent mass loss in commercial paper bags, giving evidence that the material decomposes faster than other paper products.[16]

Printing on paper cups[edit]

Originally paper cups were printed using rubber blocks mounted on cylinders, with a different cylinder for each colour. Registration across different colours was very difficult, but later flexography plates became available and with the use of mounting systems it became easier to register across the colours, allowing for more complex designs. Printing flexographic has become ideal for long runs and manufacturers generally use this method when producing over a million cups. Machines such as Comexi are used for this, which have been adapted to take the extra large reels that are required by paper cup manufacturers. Ink technology has also changed and where solvent-based inks were being used, water-based inks are instead being utilised. One of the side effects of solvent-based inks is that hot drink cups in particular can smell of solvent, whereas water-based inks have eliminated this problem. Other methods of printing have been used for short runs such as offset printing, which can vary from anything from 10,000 to 100,000 cups. Offset printing inks have also been developed and although in the past these were solvent based, the latest soya-based inks have reduced the danger of cups smelling. The latest development is Direct-printing, which allows printing on very small quantities, typically from 1,000 cups, and is used by companies including Brendos Ltd offering small quantities in short lead times. Rotogravure can also be used, but this is extremely expensive and is normally only utilised for items requiring extremely high quality printing like ice cream containers.

Environmental impact[edit]


Most paper cups are designed for a single use and then disposal. Very little recycled paper is used to make paper cups because of contamination concerns and regulations. Since most paper cups are coated with plastic (polyethylene), then both composting and recycling of paper cups is uncommon because of the difficulty in separating the polyethylene in the recycling process of said cups. As of 2016, there are only two facilities in the UK able to properly recycle PE-coated cups; in the absence of such facilities, the cups are taken to landfill or incinerated.

A UK-based business group James Cropper have developed the world's first facility for the effective recycling of the estimated 2.5 billion paper coffee cups used and disposed of by British businesses each year, and have become one of 14 international companies to formally join the Paper Recovery and Recycling Group (PCRRG).[citation needed]

James Cropper's Reclaimed Fibre Facility was opened by HM The Queen in July 2013, and recovers both the plastic and paper from the cups; ensuring nothing is wasted from the recycling process.[17] Although paper cups are made from renewable resources (wood chips 95% by weight), paper products in a landfill might not decompose, or can release methane, if decomposed anaerobically.

A Newport Beach, California, company, Smart Planet Technologies has developed a new coating on paper cups and folding cartons called EarthCoating so they are certified universally recyclable in conventional paper recycling systems. Paper cups with EarthCoating have received the highest "AAA" rating for recycling from Der Grune Punkt (The Green Dot), a certifying body for recycling in the EU, for recycling in Class 13 bales along with office paper. Smart Planet Technologies' licensee Detpak, along with paper-shredder Shred-X have set up commercial recycling systems for paper cups with EarthCoating, branded "RecycleMe", used in recycled paper products such as copy paper, gift wrap, and paper bags. Detpak declared he takeaway cup problem solved in Australia.[18] Subsequently, Australia's Department of Defense, along with globally-recognized recycler Veolia, have teamed up to recycle the Department's paper cups, as part of their "War on Waste".[19]

In 2017, the Finnish board manufacturer Kotkamills launched a new kind of cup (food service) board which uses no wax or plastic for waterproofing, and thus can be recycled as part of the normal paper and board waste stream, biodegraded, or even composted in small quantities.[14]

The manufacture of paper usually requires inorganic chemicals and creates water effluents. Paper cups may consume more non-renewable resources than cups made of polystyrene foam (whose only significant effluent is pentane).[20][21]

Paper vs plastic[edit]

A life cycle inventory of a comparison of paper vs plastic cups shows environmental effects of both with no clear winner.[22]

Polyethylene (PE) is a petroleum-based coating on paper cups that can slow down the process of biodegrading of the paper it coats.

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable bio-plastic coating used on some paper cups. PLA is a renewable resource and is certified compostable in industrial composting facilities, which means that when it biodegrades, it does not leave behind any toxic residues.[23] Although PLA-lined cups are the only paper cups which can be composted fully, they can contaminate the waste stream, reportedly making other recycled plastics unsaleable.[24]

Prior to 2012, paper cups can only be recycled at a specialised treatment facility regardless of the lining.[25]

A number of cities – including Portland, Oregon — have banned XPS foam cups in take-out and fast food restaurants.[26]


A study of one paper coffee cup with sleeve (16 ounce) shows that the CO2 emissions is about 0.253 kilograms (0.56 lb) per cup with sleeve – including paper from trees, materials, production and shipping.[27]

Habitat-loss trees used[edit]

The habitat loss from one 16 ounce paper coffee cup with a sleeve is estimated to be 0.09 square meters (0.93 square feet).[dubious – discuss][28][unreliable source?] Over 6.5 million trees were cut down to make 16 billion paper coffee cups used by U.S. in 2006, using 4 billion US gallons (15,000,000 m3) of water and resulting in 253 million pounds (115,000,000 kg) of waste. Overall, US Americans use 58% of all paper cups worldwide, amounting to 130 billion cups.[17][unreliable source?][29][unreliable source?]


A paper coffee cup with a plastic lid and "splash stick"

Paper cups may have various types of lids. The paper cups that are used as containers for yogurt, for example, generally have two types of lids: heat-seal foil lids used for small "single serving" containers, and 150–200 ml (5–7 US fl oz) plastic press-on, resealable lids used for large "family size" containers, 250–1,000 ml (8–30 US fl oz), where not all of the yogurt may be consumed at any one time and thus the ability to re-close the container is required.[30]

Hot drinks sold in paper cups may come with a plastic lid, to keep the drink hot and prevent spillage. These lids have a hole through which the drink can be sipped. The plastic lids can have many features including peel back tabs, raised walls to protect the foam of gourmet hot drinks and embossed text.[31] In 2008, Starbucks introduced shaped plastic "splash sticks" to block the hole, in some of their stores, after customer complaints about hot coffee splashing through it.[32][33]


  1. ^"Takeaway Cups For Hot Drinks". innsupplies.com. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
  2. ^Kennedy, Garry: Dixie Cup entry, Apollo Glossary, NASA. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
  3. ^"Paper Products & Dispensers". Toiletpaperworld.com. Archived from the original on 2013-02-04. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
  4. ^Raloff, Janet (2006-02-11). "Wind Makes Food Retailers Greener". Science News.
  5. ^Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Joseph Needham (ed.). Paper and Printing. Science and Civilisation in China, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 5 part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 38.
  6. ^ abJoseph Needham (1985). Science and Civilisation in China: Paper and Printing. Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN .
  7. ^ abcd"Dixie Cup Company History". Lafayette College Libraries. August 1995. Archived from the original on 2011-11-12.
  8. ^White, John H. (1985) [1978]. The American Railroad Passenger Car. 2. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 432. ISBN .
  9. ^Beulah France (February 1942). "Uses for Paper Cups and Containers". The American Journal of Nursing. 42 (2): 154–156. doi:10.2307/3416163. JSTOR 3416163. S2CID 220566845.
  10. ^Former Dixie Cup Factory, Wilson, Pa (photograph)
  11. ^"Whistlin' Dixie: Marketing the Paper Cup, 1910-1960". sites.lafayette.edu. Retrieved 2019-05-18.
  12. ^Lily-Tulip Cup Corporation, Springfield-Greene County Library, Springfield, Missouri
  13. ^Savolainen, Antti (1998). "6". Paper and Paperboard Converting. Papermaking Science and Technology. 12. Finland: Fapet OY. pp. 170–172. ISBN .
  14. ^ ab"Suomalainen yritys teki sen – kahvin, rasvan ja oluen kestävät muovittomat ihmepahvit lähtevät maailmalle: "Kiinnostus on valtavaa"" [A Finnish company made it – plastic-free miracle board that can withstand coffee, fat and beer: "We have received huge interest"]. YLE. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  15. ^"Pinoy-made 'Pinyapel' wins environment and sustainability award in New York". 30 October 2019.
  16. ^"Filipinos Made This Plastic-Free Cup From Pineapple Leaves". www.vice.com.
  17. ^ ab"Paper Cups = Unsustainable Consumption". aboutmyplanet.com. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
  18. ^"Detpak - Takeaway Cup Recycling Solved in Australia". www.detpak.com. Retrieved 2021-04-07.
  19. ^"Veolia and Defence join together to eliminate single-use disposable cups". Veolia Australia and New Zealand. Retrieved 2021-04-07.
  20. ^Don R. Hansen & Maryanne M. Mowen (2005). Management Accounting: The Cornerstone of Business Decisions. Thomson South-Western. p. 503. ISBN .
  21. ^Chris T. Hendrickson; Lester B. Lave & H. Scott Matthews (2006). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input-output Approach. Resources for the Future. p. 5. ISBN .
  22. ^Hocking, M. B. (1 February 1991). "Paper Versus Polystyrene: A Complex Choice". Science. 251 (4993n): 504–5. Bibcode:1991Sci...251..504H. doi:10.1126/science.251.4993.504. PMID 17840849. S2CID 33293105.
  23. ^"Composting". Retrieved 2013-10-15.
  24. ^"Sustainable bio-plastic can damage the environment". 25 April 2008. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
  25. ^"Paper Cup Recycling". Retrieved 2012-02-01.
  26. ^Helfrich, M. William; Sanders, Justin Wescoat (2003-08-13). "The Coming Cup-tastrophe". The Portland Mercury.
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  28. ^"ecological effects of a paper cup". ecofx.org. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
  29. ^Spitzer, Nina (30 July 2009). "The impact of disposable coffee cups on the environment". Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  30. ^Adman Y. Tamime & Richard K. Robinson (1999). Yoghurt: science and technology. Woodhead Publishing. p. 97. ISBN .
  31. ^"The Rise of the Plastic, Disposable Coffee Cup Lid". The Atlantic. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  32. ^"Starbucks splash stick says no to sploshing". USA Today. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  33. ^Johnson, Steve (11 March 2016). "Solving the mystery of Starbucks little green sticks". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 21 April 2016.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper_cup

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